Antworten

Musik in den Lagern und Ghettos der Nazis

Es ist wahrscheinlich, dass es in den meisten der etwa 10.000 NS-Lager irgendeine Form von Musik gab. Das Musizieren in den Konzentrationslagern fand unter den extremen Bedingungen der Gefangenschaft statt.

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Musik in den Todeslagern

Auch in den Todeslagern spielte die Musik eine wichtige Rolle im täglichen Leben. Es wurden offizielle Orchester gegründet, die morgens und abends vor den Lagertoren spielten und wöchentliche Konzerte gaben. Auch die Häftlinge musizierten heimlich und unbemerkt von den wachsamen Augen der SS.

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Häftlinge stellen sich im Hof der Oranienburg auf

Die Lagerkommandanten berichteten von fröhlichen Gesängen der Häftlinge als Teil einer konzertierten Propaganda, um die Schrecken des Lagers zu verbergen.                                                                

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Überlebende des Łódź-Ghettos gründen die Happy Boys

Künstler und organisierte Aufführungen waren für die Bewohner des Ghettos Lodz wie Brot und Kartoffeln. Konzerte und Theateraufführungen fanden im "Haus der Kultur" statt, das vom "Ältesten der Juden" Mordechai Chajim Rumkowski gegründet wurde.

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Ultraschall-Folter in Dachau

Die Musik, die aus einem Lautsprecher im Schubraumgebäude von Schallplatten oder aus dem Radio kam, hatte eine erdrückende Wirkung auf die Häftlinge.                                                                          

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Inmitten der Schrecken des Holocausts wurden die Lager und Ghettos zur düsteren Bühne für ein einzigartiges und tragisches Drama: die Erfahrungen von Musikern und Komponisten. In diesem Abschnitt wird ihr Leben unter unvorstellbaren Umständen untersucht, in denen die Musik, ein Symbol für Schönheit und Ausdruck, eine komplexe und oft paradoxe Rolle spielte.

Wir werden die vielfältigen Erfahrungen von inhaftierten Musikern untersuchen: erzwungene Aufführungen, die zu Propaganda- und Kontrollzwecken genutzt wurden, heimliche Kompositionen zum Trost und zum Trotz und der Kampf um die Wahrung der künstlerischen Identität angesichts unvorstellbaren Leids. Dieser Abschnitt beleuchtet die Widerstandsfähigkeit des menschlichen Geistes und die Kraft der Musik, selbst die dunkelsten Umstände zu überwinden.

Diana Blumenfeld

Musiker
Sänger
Darsteller

Diana Blumenfeld (1903–1961) was a folksinger, pianist, and actress. Caught in the ghetto along with her husband, family and friends, she continued to sing, performing in cafes and in the ghetto theatre.

Yankl Krimski

Musiker
Darsteller

Yankl Krimski was a theatre artist and musician in the Vilna ghetto. One of his most popular songs was 'Dos Elnte Kind' (The Lonely Child). Krimski’s fate is uncertain, but he is believed to have perished in an Estonian labour camp in 1943.

Mordechai Gebirtig

Dichter
Darsteller
Komponist

Poet, actor and songwriter Mordechai Gebirtig (1877-1942) was politically active and called 'the perfect Jewish folk poet'. His songs provide a window into daily Jewish life in inter-war Poland.

Isa Vermehren

Sänger
Darsteller

Isa Vermehren (1918-2009) volunteered to support the German troops as an entertainer between 1940 and 1943. Due to her brother's defection she was taken to Ravensbrück, where she was locked in an isolation cell.

Benzion Moskovits

Kantor

In 1942 Cantor Benzion Moskovitsh (1907-1968) was deported to Westerbork and in 1944 to Buchenwald. There he sang for fellow prisoners and took notes of melodies he heard on a smuggled block-note.

Yehoshua Wieder

Kantor

Cantor Yehoshua Wieder and his family were deported to Auschwitz, where his wife Chana and three youngest children were killed. Wieder and his three other children survived.

Charles Lowy

Kantor

Cantor Charles Lowy (1911-1998) escaped Munich after Kristallnacht to Hungary and became chief cantor in Szolnok. From 1942 he was subjected to forced labour and liberated by the Red Army in 1945. His wife and son were killed in Auschwitz.

Gershon Sirota

Kantor

Gershon Sirota (1874-1943) was one of the leading cantors of Europe during the "Golden Age of Hazzanut", sometimes referred to as the "Jewish Caruso". He and his family died together in the Warsaw uprising in 1943.

Viktor Ullmann

Musiklehrer
Komponist
Dirigent

Composer Viktor Ullmann (1898-1944) grew up and was educated in Vienna. He was trapped in Prague on the German invasion in March 1939 after trying unsuccessfully to find work in London or South Africa. In 1942 he was deported to Terezin.

Carlo Taube

Musiker
Komponist
Dirigent

In December 1941, pianist, composer and conductor Carlo Sigmund Taube (1897-1944) was deported to Theresienstadt with his wife and child.

James Simon

Komponist

In spring 1944, composer, pianist and musicologist James Simon (1880-1944) was sent to Westerbork. On April 4 he was deported with 1000 other inmates to Terezín. On 12 October 1944 he boarded the transport to Auschwitz.

Zikmund Schul

Komponist

The composer and violinist Zikmund Schul (1916-1944) and his father left Germany in October 1933, taking residence in Prague. He was transported to Terezín on 11 November 1941 where he continued to compose pieces, few of which survive.

Rafael Schächter

Musiker
Komponist
Dirigent

Rafael Schächter (1905-1944) made his name as an accompanist and vocal coach, working in opera and theatre before deportation to Terezin in Nov 1941. A pioneer of cultural life in the ghetto, he was deported to Auschwitz on 16 Oct 1944.

Dovid Ayznshtat

Komponist
Dirigent

Dovid Ayznshtat (1890–1942) continued to compose, conduct, perform, and train aspiring musicians, in the Warsaw Ghetto, despite the limitations and dangers of ghetto life.

Misha Veksler

Komponist
Dirigent

The conductor and composer Misha Veksler (1907-1943) became an important figure in the musical world of the Vilna ghetto, serving as the conductor of the theatre orchestra and composing music for many of the revues that were performed there.

Wolf Durmashkin

Musiker
Komponist
Dirigent

Wolf Durmashkin (1914–1944) was a Jewish composer, conductor and pianist in Vilnius. He was deported to Klooga during the liquidation of the Vilna ghetto and was killed one day before liberation.

Martin Rosenberg

Direktor

In 1933, Rosebury D’Arguto’s activities with his Gesangsgemeinschaft was banned. On a return trip to Germany to settle some personal matters in September 1939, he was arrested by the Gestapo, and taken to Sachsenhausen where he organized a Jewish choir.

Kurt Gerron

Darsteller
Direktor

A cabaret artist, theatre and film actor and director of theatre and early sound movies, Kurt Gerron (1897-1944) was a successful entertainer of the 1920s and early 1930s. He directed the Terezin propaganda film and was killed soon after.

Jehovah's Witnesses

Zeuge Jehovas

Erich Hugo Frost

Musiker
Zeuge Jehovas

Composer and musician Erich Hugo Frost (1900-1987) was imprisoned several times in prisons and concentration camps between 1934 and 1945. He composed ‘Fest steht in großer, schwerer Zeit (Stand Fast in Great and Hard Times) in the spring of 1941.

Yankl Trupyanski

Songwriter
Musiklehrer

Yankl Trupyanski was (1909-1944) a music teacher and composer of children's songs in Warsaw and Vilna. He composed many of the songs sung by children in the Yiddish schools of the inter-war years.

Zofia Czajkowska

Musiklehrer
Musiker
Dirigent

The Polish music teacher Zofia Czajkowska arrived in Auschwitz on 27 April 1942 on a transport from her home town of Tarnow. She was to become the original organiser and first conductor of the Birkenau women’s orchestra.

Hans Neumeyer

Musiklehrer
Komponist

From the age of fourteen, Hans Neumeyer (1887-1944), a composer and teacher of musical composition, was completely blind. He died whilst interned in Theresienstadt on 19 May 1944.

Leo Strauss

Songwriter
Musiker

Leo Straus (1897-1944) was arrested along with his wife Myra and sent to Theresienstadt where he was involved in cabaret productions, both as a librettist and performer. In October 1944, they were deported to Auschwitz and killed.

Egon Ledeč

Musiker
Komponist

Egon Ledeč (1889-1944) was a Czech violinist and composer sent to Theresienstadt. He appears as the concertmaster in Karel Ančerl’s orchestra in the Nazi propaganda film of the camp.

Artur Gold

Musiker

Artur Gold (1897-1943) war ein polnischer Violinist und Komponist. Er arbeitete mit seinem Bruder Henryk Gold und mit Jerzy Petersburski zusammen, mit dem er Musik arrangierte. Er und seine Musikerkollegen wurden in den letzten Wochen von Treblinka ermordet.

Wladyslaw Szpilman

Musiker

The musical career of Wladyslaw Szpilman (1911-2000) was interrupted by the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939. Szpilman and his family were driven, along with hundreds of thousands of other Jews, into the Warsaw ghetto.

Avraham Sutzkever

Partisan
Dichter

Avraham Sutzkever (1913-2010) is one of the most important contemporary Yiddish poets. During the war, Sutzkever was involved in many acts of resistance and helped save many important texts. He escaped to Moscow with his wife.

Leah Rudnitski

Partisan
Dichter

Leah Rudnitski (1916-1943) wrote one of the most beautiful lullabies to have survived the Vilna ghetto, entitled ‘Dremlen feygl oyf di tsvaygn’ (Birds doze on the boughs). She was arrested by the Gestapo and sent to Treblinka, where she was murdered.

Shmerke Kaczerginski

Musiker
Partisan
Dichter

Poet and partisan fighter Shmerke Kaczerginski (1908-1954) was a collector of Yiddish Shoah song. He was sent to the Vilna ghetto in early 1942 where he crafted songs to console prisoners and encourage resistance.

Hirsh Glick

Partisan
Dichter

Hirsch Glick (1922-1944) was a Jewish poet and partisan. He began to write Yiddish poetry in his teens and became co-founder of Yungvald, a group of young Jewish poets.

Wladyslaw Szlengel

Dichter

Władysław Szlengel (1912-1943) was a Jewish-Polish poet, lyricist, journalist, and stage actor. He was shot along with his wife at the age of 28.

Isaiah Shpigl

Dichter

Writer, poet and teacher of Yiddish literature, Isaiah Spiegel (1906-1990), was an inmate of the Lodz Ghetto from its inception in 1940 until its liquidation in 1945. In August 1944, Shpigl hid some of his writings in a cellar and took the rest with him to Auschwitz.

Moshe Diskant

Dichter

An important poet and song writer in the Kovno ghetto, Moshe Diskant was critical of the divisions between wealthy and poor in the ghetto.

Avrom Akselrod

Dichter
Komponist

Avrom Akselrod was a well-known poet and songwriter in the Kovno ghetto, known for his cynical, humorous and realistic depictions of the misery and occasional joys of ghetto life.

Karel Berman

Sänger

Bass singer Karel Berman (1919-1995) was deported to Terezin on 6 Mar 1943. He sang in operas and recitals and was cast as 'Death' in Ullmann’s Der Kaiser von Atlantis. Transported to Auschwitz on 28 Sep 1944 and liberated from the Allach camp.

Marysia Ayznshtat

Sänger

Marysia Ayznshtat (1921-1942) war eine der bekanntesten Musikerinnen des Warschauer Ghettos. Sie wurde im Alter von einundzwanzig Jahren von einem SS-Offizier erschossen.

Khayele Rozental

Sänger

Khayele Rozental (1924-1979) was one of the most popular singers in the Vilna ghetto. She established her talents in drama and singing aged 16, when she was chosen to represent Vilna at the Festival of Songs in Moscow.

Lyube Levitski

Sänger

Soprano Lyube Levitski's beautiful voice made her a star at the age of 21. In the Vilna ghetto she was lashed, kept in solitary confinement for a month, and eventually killed at Ponar.

Antwort

Brundibár

Brundibár is a children's opera written in 1938 and composed by Hans Krása with lyrics by Adolf Hoffmeister. Its premiere in Terezín was on 23 September 1943.

Antwort

Bunalied

Bunalied was written in mortal danger in the Buna-Monowitz subcamp of Auschwitz with lyrics by Fritz Löhner-Beda and music by Anton Geppert.

Antwort

Camp System

An overview of the types of internment camps within the camp system of the Third Reich related to major phases of the Nazi regime.

Antwort

Klassische Sänger und der Holocaust

Ab 1933 waren eine gute Stimme und Gesangskunst für einige klassisch ausgebildete jüdische Sänger der Weg in die Freiheit. Doch viele Sängerinnen und Sänger konnten nicht entkommen.

Antwort

Eugen Engel

Composer Eugen Engel (1875-1943) found it increasingly difficult to pursue his musical activities. In 1943 He was deported to Sobibór death camp.

Antwort

Lea Deutsch

Already a star at an early age she was banned from her theatre in 1941 and in 1943 died from starvation and exposure on transportation to Auschwitz.

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