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Ullman, Viktor

Compositor
Conductor
Profesor de música

Taube, Carlo

Compositor
Conductor
Músico

Strauss, Leo

Músico
Song Writer

Simon, James

Compositor

Schul, Zikmund

Compositor

Schächter, Rafael

Compositor
Conductor
Músico

Ledec, Egon

Compositor
Músico

Krasa, Hans

Compositor

Klein, Gideon

Compositor

Haas, Pavel

Compositor

Los Testigos de Jehová

Testigo de Jehová

Partisanos

Partidista

Kon, Henech

Actor
Cantante

Turkov, Yonas

Actor
Director
Song Writer

Eisenstadt, Dovid

Compositor
Conductor

Braun, Paulina

Compositor
Song Writer

Blumenfeld, Diana

Actor
Músico
Cantante

Volkoviski, Alek

Compositor
Song Writer

Veksler, Misha

Compositor
Conductor

Trupyanski, Yankl

Profesor de música
Song Writer

Sutzkever, Avraham

Partidista
Poeta

Rudnitski, Leah

Partidista
Poeta

Rozental, Leyb

Song Writer

Krimski, Yankl

Actor
Músico

Kaczerginski, Shmerke

Músico
Partidista
Poeta

Glick, Hirsh

Partidista
Poeta

Glezer, Rikle

Song Writer

Durmashkin, Wolf

Compositor
Conductor
Músico

Brudno, Avrom

Compositor
Músico

Broydo, Kasriel

Cantante
Song Writer

Khaytin, Khane

Song Writer

Ryder, Teodor

Conductor
Músico

Dovid Beyglman

Músico

David Beigelman (1887–1945) was a Polish violinist, orchestra leader, and composer of Yiddish songs. In the Łódź ghetto established a small theatre where he composed prolifically and wrote his own lyrics.

Gebirtig, Mordechai

Actor
Compositor
Poeta

Akselrod, Avrom

Compositor
Poeta

Rosé, Alma

Conductor
Músico

Fénelon, Fania

Compositor
Músico
Cantante

Czajkowska, Zofia

Conductor
Profesor de música
Músico

Kulisiewicz, Aleksander

Músico
Poeta
Cantante

Vermehren, Isa

Actor
Cantante

Trksak, Irma

Cantante

Morgan, Paul

Actor
Cantante

Löhner-Beda, Fritz

Compositor
Poeta

Rosen, Willy

Compositor
Músico

Gerron, Kurt

Actor
Director

Langhoff, Wolfgang

Actor
Director

Grünbaum, Fritz

Actor
Músico
Cantante

Wagner, Richard

Compositor

Pfitzner, Hans

Compositor
nazi

Orff, Carl

Compositor

Moser, Hans Joachim

nazi
Musicólogo

Klemperer, Otto

Compositor
Conductor

Huber, Kurt

Compositor

Havemann, Gustav

Conductor
Músico
nazi

Karl Amadeus Hartmann

Compositor

Throughout WWII, composer Karl Amadeus Hartmann (1905-1963) withdrew from German musical life, prohibiting his own music and half-poisoning himself to ensure he was unfit for conscription. His music was denigrated as atonal and degenerate.

Gerigk, Herbert

nazi
Musicólogo

Egk, Werner

Compositor

Bruckner, Anton

Compositor

Blessinger, Karl

Compositor
nazi

Furtwängler, Wilhelm

Compositor
Conductor

Singer, Kurt

Compositor

Weill, Kurt

Compositor
Emigrar

Schreker, Franz

Compositor

Schoenberg, Arnold

Compositor
Emigrar

Krenek, Ernst

Compositor
Emigrar

Hindemith, Paul

Compositor

Goldschmidt, Berthold

Compositor
Emigrar

Hanns Eisler

Compositor
Emigrar

Marxist composer Hanns Eisler (1898-1962) was in Vienna in January 1933 when Hitler became German Chancellor. Eisler stayed true to his Communist ideals, fleeing Nazi Germany in the 1930s and America in the 1940s.

Wurzburger, Segfried

Compositor
Músico

Nadel, Arno

Compositor
Poeta
Musicólogo

Schmidt, Joseph

Actor
Cantor
Emigrar
Cantante

Neumeyer, Hans

Compositor
Profesor de música

Frost, Erich Hugo

Músico
Testigo de Jehová

Cortot, Alfred

Compositor

Arma, Paul

Compositor
Emigrar

Maurice Chevalier

Actor
Cantante

Piaf, Edith

Cantante

David Botwinik

Compositor

Les Six

Compositor

Myra Hess

Director
Músico

Dame Julia Myra Hess, DBE (1890-1965) was an English pianist, best known for her performances of the works of Bach, Mozart, Beethoven and Schumann. During WWII, she put on concerts at the National Gallery to raise morale.

Leopold Spinner

Compositor
Emigrar

Ukrainian composer, musicologist and editor Leopold Spinner (1906-1980) escaped Nazi persecution in 1938. In England he worked in a train factory before joining Boosey & Hawkes in 1947, eventually as chief editor, focusing on Stravinsky.

Arthur Honegger

Compositor

The 2nd symphony of Swiss composer Arthur Honegger (1892-1955) was performed in Apr 1944 by the Boyd Neel Orchestra, the score received on microfilm by parachute from France.

Andrzej Panufnik

Compositor

Composer and conductor Andrzej Panufnik (1914-1991) was an anti-Nazi. He left his studies when Austria was annexed and performed in cafes with Witold Lutosławksi, composing resistance songs and raising money for the resistance and Jewish artists.

Franz Schmidt

Compositor
Músico

After the Anschluss in 1938, Franz Schmidt (1874-1939) was named the greatest living composer in the Ostmark by the Nazis. At the premiere of his Das Buch mit Sieben Siegeln, it was reported that Schmidt made a Nazi salute.

Varian Fry and Alma Mahler-Werfel

Compositor
Emigrar

Varian Fry (1907-1967) was an American journalist who ran a rescue network in Vichy France that helped approximately 2,000 to 4,000 anti-Nazi and Jewish refugees to escape Nazi Germany and the Holocaust.

Karlrobert Kreiten

Músico

Pianist Karlrobert Kreiten (1916-1943) was overheard saying Hitler was ‘brutal, sick and insane,’ by a Nazi sympathiser. He was executed by hanging. The day after his execution, his mother discovered her clemency plea had been accepted.

Mieczysław Weinberg

Compositor

The prolific Soviet composer Mieczysław Weinberg (1919-1996) wrote 22 symphonies, 17 string quartets, 7 operas, 6 concertos, 3 ballets, 30 sonatas and more than 200 songs as well as 60 film scores and incidental music for theatre and circus.

Igor Stravinsky

Compositor

Igor Stravinsky (1882-1965) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century.

Mikhail Gnessin

Compositor

Mikhail Fabianovich Gnessin was a Russian Jewish composer and teacher. Gnessin's works "The Maccabeans" and "The Youth of Abraham" earned him the nickname the "Jewish Glinka".

Marlene Dietrich

Actor
Cantante

Marie Magdalene "Marlene" Dietrich was a German-American actress and singer. Throughout her long career, which spanned from the 1910s to the 1980s, she continually reinvented herself. In 1920s Berlin, Dietrich acted on the stage and in silent films.

Hans Keller

Emigrar
Musicólogo

Austrian-born British musicologist and music critic Hans Keller (1919-1985), who made significant contributions to musicology and music criticism, was arrested by the Nazis and forced to leave Austria following the Anschluss in 1938.

Bela Bartok

Compositor
Emigrar

Béla Bartók (1881-1945) was a Hungarian composer, pianist, and ethnomusicologist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century. He refused to perform in Germany after 1933.

Jack Hylton

Músico

Jack Hylton (1892-1965) and his band made regular tours in Germany during the 30s when Nazis were banning jazz music. During WWII, Jack Hylton and His Orchestra disbanded, having out-sold every other band in Europe.

Clemens Krauss

Conductor

Clemens Heinrich Krauss (1893-1954) was an Austrian conductor and opera impresario, particularly associated with the music of Richard Strauss. Called ‘the most powerful man in German opera,’ and a ‘culture leader’, his career advanced significantly under the Nazi regime.

Wilhelm Rettich

Compositor
Emigrar

Wilhelm Rettich was a German Jewish composer, conductor and teacher. He fled Germany for the Netherlands in 1933 and survived the Nazi occupation by hiding alone in a cellar and composing music. Although not particularly well known today, his music is highly regarded.

Richard Fuchs

Compositor

Richard Fuchs was a German Jewish architect, artist and composer who founded the Baden-Wurttenberg branch of the Jüdischer Kulturbund. Fuchs was interned in Dachau before escaping to New Zealand after Kristallnacht in 1938.

Walter Arlen

Compositor

Composer and music critic Walter Arlen found fame when his compositions were first performed in 2008. He escaped from Nazi persecution in 1939 and is described as the 'quintessential exile composer'.

Zemlinsky, Alexander

Compositor
Conductor
Emigrar

Alexander Zemlinsky (1871-1942) was an Austrian composer, conductor and teacher. He fled Germany in 1933 reaching the US in 1938, but he did not flourish and he was almost forgotten.

Boris Blacher

Compositor

Composer Boris Blacher (1903-1975) studied music in Irkutsk, Siberia and Harbin, China, before going to Berlin in 1922. There he studied and taught before falling out of favour with the Nazis due the fact he was one quarter Jewish.

Jan van Gilse

Compositor
Emigrar

Jan van Gilse (1881-1944) a Dutch composer and conductor, began serving as director of the Utrecht Conservatory in 1933, a post he accepted upon leaving Berlin after the rise of the Nazi regime.

Petr Eben

Compositor

Petr Eben (1929-2007) was a prolific Czech composer who suffered under both Nazi and Stalinist regimes. He was imprisoned in Buchenwald as a teenager.

Leo Smit

Compositor

Leopold "Leo" Smit was a Dutch composer. In April 1943 he and his wife were transported to Westerbork and soon after they were killed in Sobibor.

Bronislaw Huberman

Emigrar
Músico

Polish violinist Bronisław Huberman (1882-1947) helped to save an estimated 1000 lives during the Holocaust through the foundation of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra.

Grunschlag Family

Emigrar
Músico

David (1914-1996), Toni (1916-2006) and Rosi Grunschlag (1922-2012) were musical prodigies who escaped Nazi persecution in Austria in the 1930s with the help of violinist Bronisław Huberman.

Edith Kraus

Músico

Pianist and teacher Edith Kraus (1913-2013), who lived to 100, was a prolific musician in Terezín. She emigrated to Israel in 1949 where she gave concerts and taught at Music Academy at Tel Aviv University until her retirement.

Walter Kaufmann

Compositor
Conductor
Emigrar

Ethnomusicologist, composer, conductor, librettist and teacher Walter Kaufmann (1907-1984) was professor of classical musicology at the University of Bloomington.

Arthur Chitz

Compositor
Conductor
Músico

Music historian, composer, pianist and conductor Arthur Chitz's (1882-1944) successful career was tragically cut short when he was unable to escape Germany before the Holocaust. He is presumed to have died in a concentration camp in Riga.

Margit Bokor

Emigrar
Cantante

Margit Bokor (1905-1949) was an accomplished soprano with a career spanning Europe and America. She was forced to leave Dresden and was forbidden to work in institutions such as Dresden Opera House.

Vilem Tausky

Compositor
Conductor
Emigrar

Composer and conductor Vilem Tauský (1910-2004) orchestrated an operetta based on music by Bizet in exchange for the money for an exit visa to France, which he collected from the Gestapo in person.

Peter Gellhorn

Compositor
Conductor
Emigrar
Profesor de música
Músico

German conductor, composer and pianist Peter Gellhorn (1912-2004) fled Germany during the 1930s and settled in London. He conducted at the Royal Opera House, Sadler’s Wells and Glyndebourne.

Egon Wellesz

Compositor
Emigrar

Egon Wellesz (1885-1974) was an Austrian-born composer, teacher and musicologist whose works were banned in Austria in 1933. He escaped to England in 1938 where he was interned on the Isle of Man as an enemy alien.

Bohuslav Martinu

Compositor

After the Nazi invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1939 and the signing of the Munich Agreement, composer Bohuslav Martinů (1890-1959) tried to join the Czech Resistance in France but was not accepted because of his age.

Charlie and His Orchestra

Conductor
Músico

Charlie and his Orchestra were a Nazi-sponsored German propaganda swing band. They chose to play jazz standards that were popular with English listeners but with modified lyrics. This musical form of propaganda contributed to the spread of Nazi ideology and conveyed a defeatist message in the ranks of the Nazi enemy, British or American.

Franz Lehár

Compositor

Franz Lehár (1870-1948) is famous for his operetta The Merry Widow. He stayed in Austria during WWII, refusing to involve himself with politics but benefiting financially from Hitler’s promotion of his operetta.

Joseph Goebbels

nazi

Joseph Goebbels wanted to promote all works demonstrating German hegemony in music; that is, paradoxically, why he initially protected composers or conductors opposed to the application of anti-Semitic laws, even obscuring the Jewish origins of some talented composers or protecting their wives.

Walter Bricht →

Compositor
Emigrar
Profesor de música
Músico

Walter Bricht (1904-1970) was an Austrian composer whose years as a professional composer coincided with Hitler’s rise and the onset of Austro-fascism in 1933.

Werner Richard Heymann

Compositor
Emigrar

Born in Königsberg to musical parents, Werner Richard Heymann (1896-1961) was a musical prodigy. He worked as a cabaret, film and theatre composer in Berlin before escaping Nazi Germany for Hollywood.

Mischa Spoliansky

Compositor
Emigrar

Mischa Spoliansky (1898-1985) is remembered in Germany for his Kabarett and satirical revue songs. Forced to leave in 1933, he took British citizenship and, during the war, wrote for a team of ex-Berliners who had fled Germany.

Franz Waxman

Compositor
Emigrar

Franz Waxman (1906-1967) was a composer, conductor and impresario. He wrote 150 films scores and received 12 Academy Award nominations. He was exiled to the US where he found success as a film composer.

Annemarie Hase

Actor
Emigrar
Cantante

German actress and cabaret artist Annemarie Hase (1900-1971) emerged as a star during the Weimar Republic but because she was Jewish faced persecution from Nazis. In 1936 she went into exile in Britain where she worked for the BBC.

Charles Delaunay

Emigrar

Charles Delaunay (1911-1988) co-founded Le Jazz Hot, one of the oldest jazz magazines. In 1937, he started Disques Swing, a record label exclusively for jazz. During WWII Delaunay was a member of the resistance, but continued leading the Hot Club.

Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco

Compositor
Emigrar

Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco (1895-1968) was an Italian composer, pianist and writer. Even before Mussolini’s racial laws, his works were banned. A performance of his 2nd violin concerto was cancelled in 1938, months before the laws were imposed.

Marcel Tyberg

Compositor
Emigrar

Austrian conductor, pianist, and teacher Marcel Tyberg (1893-1944) is most prominently remembered as a composer. He was arrested in a night raid and sent to the camps of San Sabba and in 1944, Auschwitz, where he died on the 31 December.

Jascha Horenstein

Compositor
Emigrar

On 18 January 1939, composer Jascha Horenstein (1898-1973) boarded the ocean liner ‘Champlaigne’ using falsified Honduran passports bound for New York. After a short period in Hollywood, Horenstein joined the faculty of the New School for Social Research in New York.

Portrait of Karol Rathaus

Karol Rathaus

Compositor
Emigrar

Musically precocious at age 5, Karol Rathaus was born on 16 September 1895. In 1932 he moved to Paris, where he worked as a film composer. Years of exile, fatigue and ill health took physical and emotional toll on him. He died in New York on 21 Nov 1954, age 59.

Ignace Strasfogel

Compositor
Emigrar

Ignaz Strasfogel was born 17 July 1909 in Warsaw, Poland. At aged 14 he was accepted into Franz Schreker’s composition class and was heading for a successful music career. In late 1933 he was able to emigrate to the United States.